SQLite adapter for upper.io/db.v1

The upper.io/db.v1/sqlite adapter for the SQLite3 database is a wrapper of the github.com/mattn/go-sqlite3 driver by Yasuhiro Matsumoto.

This adapter supports basic CRUD queries, transactions, simple join queries and raw SQL.


This package uses cgo, so in order to compile and install it you’ll also need a C compiler, such as gcc:

# Debian
sudo apt-get install gcc

# FreeBSD
sudo pkg install gcc
sudo ln -s /usr/local/bin/gcc47 /usr/local/bin/gcc

If you’re on a Mac, you’ll need Xcode and the Command Line Tools.

Otherwise, you’ll end with an error like this:

# github.com/mattn/go-sqlite3
exec: "gcc": executable file not found in $PATH

Once gccis installed, use go get to download, compile and install the sqlite adapter.

go get upper.io/db.v1/sqlite

Setting up database access

The sqlite.ConnectionURL{} struct is defined like this:

// ConnectionURL implements a SQLite connection struct.
type ConnectionURL struct {
  Database string
  Options  map[string]string

Alternatively, a sqlite.ParseURL() function is provided:

// ParseURL parses s into a ConnectionURL struct.
sqlite.ParseURL(s string) (ConnectionURL, error)

You may use sqlite.ConnectionURL as argument for db.Open().


To use this adapter, import upper.io/db.v1 and the upper.io/db.v1/sqlite packages. Note that the adapter must be imported to the blank identifier.

# main.go
package main

import (

Then, you can use the db.Open() method to open a SQLite3 database file:

var settings = sqlite.ConnectionURL{
  Database: `/path/to/example.db`, // Path to a sqlite3 database file.

sess, err = db.Open(sqlite.Adapter, settings)


The following SQL statement creates a table with “name” and “born” columns.

--' example.sql


CREATE TABLE "birthday" (
  "name" varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL,
  "born" varchar(12) DEFAULT NULL

Use the sqlite3 command line tool to create a example.db database file.

rm -f example.db
cat example.sql | sqlite3 example.db

The Go code below will add some rows to the “birthday” table and then will print the same rows that were inserted.

// example.go

package main

import (
  "upper.io/db.v1"          // Imports the main db package.
  "upper.io/db.v1/sqlite"   // Imports the sqlite adapter.

var settings = sqlite.ConnectionURL{
  Database: `example.db`, // Path to database file.

type Birthday struct {
  // Maps the "Name" property to the "name" column of the "birthday" table.
  Name string `db:"name"`
  // Maps the "Born" property to the "born" column of the "birthday" table.
  Born time.Time `db:"born"`

func main() {

  // Attemping to open the "example.db" database file.
  sess, err := db.Open(sqlite.Adapter, settings)

  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("db.Open(): %q\n", err)

  // Remember to close the database session.
  defer sess.Close()

  // Pointing to the "birthday" table.
  birthdayCollection, err := sess.Collection("birthday")

  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("sess.Collection(): %q\n", err)

  // Attempt to remove existing rows (if any).
  err = birthdayCollection.Truncate()

  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("Truncate(): %q\n", err)

  // Inserting some rows into the "birthday" table.

    Name: "Hayao Miyazaki",
    Born: time.Date(1941, time.January, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, time.Local),

    Name: "Nobuo Uematsu",
    Born: time.Date(1959, time.March, 21, 0, 0, 0, 0, time.Local),

    Name: "Hironobu Sakaguchi",
    Born: time.Date(1962, time.November, 25, 0, 0, 0, 0, time.Local),

  // Let's query for the results we've just inserted.
  var res db.Result

  res = birthdayCollection.Find()

  var birthday []Birthday

  // Query all results and fill the birthday variable with them.
  err = res.All(&birthday)

  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("res.All(): %q\n", err)

  // Printing to stdout.
  for _, birthday := range birthday {
    fmt.Printf("%s was born in %s.\n", birthday.Name, birthday.Born.Format("January 2, 2006"))


Running the example above:

go run main.go

Expected output:

Hayao Miyazaki was born in January 5, 1941.
Nobuo Uematsu was born in March 21, 1959.
Hironobu Sakaguchi was born in November 25, 1962.

Unique adapter features

Simple JOIN queries

Querying from multiple tables is possible using db.Database.Collection(), just pass the name of all the tables separating them by commas. You can also use the AS keyword to define an alias that you could later use in conditions to refer to the original table.

var err error
var artistPublication db.Collection

// Querying from two tables.
artistPublication, err = sess.Collection(`artist AS a`, `publication AS p`)

if err != nil {

res := artistPublication.Find(
  // Use db.Raw{} to enclose statements that you'd like to pass without
  // filtering.
  db.Raw{`a.id = p.author_id`},
  `p.id`, // We defined "p" as an alias for "publication".
  `p.title as publication_title`, // The "AS" is recognized as column alias.
  db.Raw{`a.name AS artist_name`},

type artistPublication_t struct {
  Id               int64  `db:"id"`
  PublicationTitle string `db:"publication_title"`
  ArtistName       string `db:"artist_name"`

all := []artistPublication_t{}

if err = res.All(&all); err != nil {

If you’re working with more than one collection, the first one you pass becomes your primary collection. Calls to db.Collection.Append(), db.Collection.Remove() and db.Collection.Update() will be performed on your primary collection.

Auto-incremental keys

If you want to use auto-increment keys with a MySQL database, you must define the column type as INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, like this:

  title VARCHAR(255)

Also, you must provide the omitempty option in the db tag when defining the struct:

type Foo struct {
  Id    int64   `db:"id,omitempty"`
  Title string  `db:"title"`

In order for the ID to be returned by db.Collection.Append(), the primary key must be named “id”, this is a known limitation that will be fixed on future releases.


Sometimes you’ll need to run complex SQL queries with joins and database specific magic, there is an extra package sqlutil that you could use in this situation:

import "upper.io/db.v1/util/sqlutil"

This is an example for sqlutil.FetchRows:

  var sess db.Database
  var rows *sql.Rows
  var err error
  var drv *sql.DB

  type publication_t struct {
    Id       int64  `db:"id,omitempty"`
    Title    string `db:"title"`
    AuthorId int64  `db:"author_id"`

  if sess, err = db.Open(Adapter, settings); err != nil {

  defer sess.Close()

  drv = sess.Driver().(*sql.DB)

  rows, err = drv.Query(`
      p.title AS publication_title,
      a.name AS artist_name
      artist AS a,
      publication AS p
      a.id = p.author_id

  if err != nil {

  var all []publication_t

  // Mapping to an array.
  if err = sqlutil.FetchRows(rows, &all); err != nil {

  if len(all) != 9 {
    t.Fatalf("Expecting some rows.")

You can also use sqlutil.FetchRow(*sql.Rows, interface{}) for mapping results obtained from sql.DB.Query() calls to a pointer of a single struct instead of a pointer to an array of structs. Please note that there is no support for sql.DB.QueryRow() and that you must provide a *sql.Rows value to both sqlutil.FetchRow() and sqlutil.FetchRows().

Using db.Raw and db.Func

If you need to provide a raw parameter for a method you can use the db.Raw type. Plese note that raw means that the specified value won’t be filtered:

res = sess.Find().Select(db.Raw{`DISTINCT(name)`})

db.Raw also works for condition values.

Another useful type that you could use to create an equivalent statement is db.Func:

res = sess.Find().Select(db.Func{`DISTINCT`, `name`})