The postgresql adapter for PostgreSQL wraps the driver written by Blake Mizerany.

Basic use

This page showcases the particularities of the PostgreSQL adapter, if you’re new to upper-db, you should take a look at the getting started page first.

After you’re done with the introduction, reading through the examples is highly recommended.


Use go get to download and install the adapter:

go get

Setting up database access

The postgresql.ConnectionURL{} struct is defined as follows:

// ConnectionURL implements a PostgreSQL connection struct.
type ConnectionURL struct {
  User     string
  Password string
  Host     string
  Database string
  Options  map[string]string

Pass the postgresql.ConnectionURL value as argument for postgresql.Open() to create a postgresql.Database session.

settings = postgresql.ConnectionURL{

sess, err = postgresql.Open(settings)

A postgresql.ParseURL() function is provided to convert a DSN into a postgresql.ConnectionURL:

// ParseURL parses a DSN into a ConnectionURL struct.
postgresql.ParseURL(dsn string) (ConnectionURL, error)


Import the package into your application:

// main.go
package main

import (

Then, you can use the postgresql.Open() method to create a session:

var settings = postgresql.ConnectionURL{
  Host:       "localhost",          // PostgreSQL server IP or name.
  Database:   "peanuts",            // Database name.
  User:       "cbrown",             // Optional user name.
  Password:   "snoopy",             // Optional user password.

sess, err = postgresql.Open(settings)


The following SQL statement creates a birthday table with name and born columns.

--' example.sql

CREATE TABLE "birthday" (
  "born" TIMESTAMP

Use the psql command line tool to create the birthday table into the upperio_tests database.

cat example.sql | PGPASSWORD=upperio psql -Uupperio upperio_tests

The Go code below will add some rows to the birthday table and it then will print the same rows that were inserted.

// example.go

package main

import (


var settings = postgresql.ConnectionURL{
  Database: `upperio_tests`,
  Host:     `localhost,`
  User:     `upperio`,
  Password: `upperio`,

type Birthday struct {
  // Name maps the "Name" property to the "name" column
  // of the "birthday" table.
  Name string `db:"name"`

  // Born maps the "Born" property to the "born" column
  // of the "birthday" table.
  Born time.Time `db:"born"`

func main() {

  // Attemping to establish a connection to the database.
  sess, err := postgresql.Open(settings)
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("db.Open(): %q\n", err)
  defer sess.Close() // Remember to close the database session.

  // Pointing to the "birthday" table.
  birthdayCollection := sess.Collection("birthday")

  // Attempt to remove existing rows (if any).
  err = birthdayCollection.Truncate()
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("Truncate(): %q\n", err)

  // Inserting some rows into the "birthday" table.
    Name: "Hayao Miyazaki",
    Born: time.Date(1941, time.January, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, time.UTC),

    Name: "Nobuo Uematsu",
    Born: time.Date(1959, time.March, 21, 0, 0, 0, 0, time.UTC),

    Name: "Hironobu Sakaguchi",
    Born: time.Date(1962, time.November, 25, 0, 0, 0, 0, time.UTC),

  // Let's query for the results we've just inserted.
  res := birthdayCollection.Find()

  // Query all results and fill the birthdays variable with them.
  var birthdays []Birthday

  err = res.All(&birthdays)
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("res.All(): %q\n", err)

  // Printing to stdout.
  for _, birthday := range birthdays {
    fmt.Printf("%s was born in %s.\n",
      birthday.Born.Format("January 2, 2006"),

Running the example above:

go run main.go

Expected output:

Hayao Miyazaki was born in January 5, 1941.
Nobuo Uematsu was born in March 21, 1959.
Hironobu Sakaguchi was born in November 25, 1962.

Unique adapter features

JSON types

The postgresql adapter supports saving and retrieving JSON data when using JSON types.

Make sure your column is of jsonb type and that you’re using the jsonb option when mapping your field:

type Person struct {
  Properties  []string                `db:"properties,jsonb"`
  Meta        map[string]interface{}  `db:"meta,jsonb"`

JSON types area supported on PostgreSQL 9.4+.

SQL builder

You can use the query builder for any complex SQL query:

q := sess.Select(
    "p.title AD publication_title",
    " AS artist_name",
  ).From("artists AS a", "publication AS p").
  Where(" = p.author_id")

var publications []Publication
if err = q.All(&publications); err != nil {

Auto-incremental keys (serial)

If you want to use auto-increment (or serial) keys with PostgreSQL database, you must define the column type as SERIAL, like this:

  title VARCHAR

Remember to set the omitempty option to the ID field:

type Foo struct {
  ID    int64   `db:"id,omitempty"`
  Title string  `db:"title"`

Otherwise, you’ll end up with an error like this:

ERROR:  duplicate key violates unique constraint "id"

In order for the ID to be returned by db.Collection.Insert(), the SERIAL field must be set as PRIMARY KEY too.

Using db.Raw and db.Func

If you need to provide a raw parameter for a method you can use the db.Raw function. Plese note that raw means that the specified value won’t be filtered:

res = sess.Find().Select(db.Raw("DISTINCT(name)"))

db.Raw also works for condition values.

Another useful type that you could use to create an equivalent statement is db.Func:

res = sess.Find().Select(db.Func("DISTINCT", "name"))