The sqlite adapter for the SQLite3 wraps the github.com/mattn/go-sqlite3 driver written by Yasuhiro Matsumoto.

Basic use

This page showcases the particularities of the SQLite adapter, if you’re new to upper-db, you should take a look at the getting started page first.

After you’re done with the introduction, reading through the examples is highly recommended.


This package uses cgo, so in order to compile and install it you’ll also need a C compiler, such as gcc:

# Debian
sudo apt-get install gcc

# FreeBSD
sudo pkg install gcc
sudo ln -s /usr/local/bin/gcc47 /usr/local/bin/gcc

If you’re on a Mac, you’ll need Xcode and the Command Line Tools.

Otherwise, you’ll end with an error like this:

# github.com/mattn/go-sqlite3
exec: "gcc": executable file not found in $PATH

Once gcc is installed, use go get to download, compile and install the sqlite adapter.

go get upper.io/db.v2/sqlite

Setting up database access

The sqlite.ConnectionURL{} struct is defined like this:

// ConnectionURL implements a SQLite connection struct.
type ConnectionURL struct {
  Database string
  Options  map[string]string

Pass the sqlite.ConnectionURL value as argument for sqlite.Open() to create a sqlite.Database session.

settings = sqlite.ConnectionURL{

sess, err = sqlite.Open(settings)

A sqlite.ParseURL() function is provided to convert a DSN into a sqlite.ConnectionURL:

// ParseURL parses a DSN into a ConnectionURL struct.
sqlite.ParseURL(dsn string) (ConnectionURL, error)


Import the upper.io/db.v2/sqlite package into your application:

// main.go
package main

import (

Then, you can use the sqlite.Open() method to open a SQLite3 database file:

var settings = sqlite.ConnectionURL{
  Database: `/path/to/example.db`, // Path to a sqlite3 database file.

sess, err = sqlite.Open(settings)


The following SQL statement creates a table with name and born columns.

--' example.sql


CREATE TABLE "birthday" (
  "name" varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL,
  "born" varchar(12) DEFAULT NULL

Use the sqlite3 command line tool to create a example.db database file.

rm -f example.db
cat example.sql | sqlite3 example.db

The Go code below will add some rows to the “birthday” table and then will print the same rows that were inserted.

// example.go

package main

import (

var settings = sqlite.ConnectionURL{
  Database: `example.db`, // Path to database file.

type Birthday struct {
  // Maps the "Name" property to the "name" column
  // of the "birthday" table.
  Name string `db:"name"`
  // Maps the "Born" property to the "born" column
  // of the "birthday" table.
  Born time.Time `db:"born"`

func main() {

  // Attemping to open the "example.db" database file.
  sess, err := sqlite.Open(settings)
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("db.Open(): %q\n", err)
  defer sess.Close() // Remember to close the database session.

  // Pointing to the "birthday" table.
  birthdayCollection := sess.Collection("birthday")

  // Attempt to remove existing rows (if any).
  err = birthdayCollection.Truncate()
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("Truncate(): %q\n", err)

  // Inserting some rows into the "birthday" table.
    Name: "Hayao Miyazaki",
    Born: time.Date(1941, time.January, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, time.Local),

    Name: "Nobuo Uematsu",
    Born: time.Date(1959, time.March, 21, 0, 0, 0, 0, time.Local),

    Name: "Hironobu Sakaguchi",
    Born: time.Date(1962, time.November, 25, 0, 0, 0, 0, time.Local),

  // Let's query for the results we've just inserted.
  res := birthdayCollection.Find()

  // Query all results and fill the birthday variable with them.
  var birthdays []Birthday

  err = res.All(&birthdays)
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("res.All(): %q\n", err)

  // Printing to stdout.
  for _, birthday := range birthday {
    fmt.Printf("%s was born in %s.\n",
      birthday.Born.Format("January 2, 2006"),

Running the example above:

go run main.go

Expected output:

Hayao Miyazaki was born in January 5, 1941.
Nobuo Uematsu was born in March 21, 1959.
Hironobu Sakaguchi was born in November 25, 1962.

Unique adapter features

SQL builder

You can use the query builder for any complex SQL query:

q := b.Select(
    "p.title AD publication_title",
    "a.name AS artist_name",
  ).From("artists AS a", "publication AS p").
  Where("a.id = p.author_id")

var publications []Publication
if err = q.All(&publications); err != nil {

Auto-incremental keys

If you want to use auto-increment keys with a SQLite database, you must define the column type as INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, like this:

  title VARCHAR(255)

Remember to set the omitempty option to the ID field:

type Foo struct {
  Id    int64   `db:"id,omitempty"`
  Title string  `db:"title"`

Using db.Raw and db.Func

If you need to provide a raw parameter for a method you can use the db.Raw function. Plese note that raw means that the specified value won’t be filtered:

res = sess.Find().Select(db.Raw("DISTINCT(name)"))

db.Raw also works for condition values.

Another useful type that you could use to create an equivalent statement is db.Func:

res = sess.Find().Select(db.Func("DISTINCT", "name"))